The main reason behind why the 3rd crusade began was that it was an attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin, after being in Christian hands for 88 years. The Saracen sultan, or leader of that time, was Saladin; through his dazzling military genius and after defeating the army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, proceeded to capture Jerusalem. Saladin's troops were particularly noted of their courteous and mannered be haviour as they marched through the gates and not looting the city.
The capturing of Jersulem once again shocked the Christian West. The Pope, Gregory VIII, as past popes did, then sent for plea all across Europe to undertake the third holy pilgrimage, Third Crusade, to save the Holy Land from an alien people. This encouraged much of the nobility, seeing this as the chance to carve out kingdoms and power and wealth, whilst some merely went for adventure, the some who wished for new adventure and experiences, and the very few knights who still lived the strict codes of knightly chivalry.
Most noted of these men were King Phillip II Of France, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and King Richard of England.
Most of the other knights were nothing better than greedy pigs that lusted for power rather than being the champions of justice. Though overall, the outcome of the Third Crusade depended more on military genius and leadership than the prowess in the battlefield, in the end many thought the third crusade as fruitless as many of the other crusades.
One of the outcomes is the failure of the main objective to recapture Jerusalem, and this was because Richard had to abandon the Crusade due to alarming activities in Europe, and was forced to sign a treaty with Saladin, allowing Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem and other places...