Active and passive transport are the ways in which cells allow things to move into and
out of the cell through the cell membrane. They include many different ways to transport
things. Passive transport requires no expenditure of energy by the cell. However, Active
transport requires ATPs which have energy in order for it to move something through the
cell membrane. There are different types of transport to suit the sizes of molecules as well.
Passive transport includes diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. Diffusion is a
net of movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration that doesn't require energy. It moves molecules such as oxygen into the cells
and carbon dioxide out of the cell. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable
membrane. It occurs because of the concentration of a solute in a solution. In a hypertonic
solution the concentration of the solute is higher and water is moved into the cell through
osmosis, but in a hypotonic solution the concentration of the solute is lower and water is
moved out of the cell.
In an isotonic solution the concentration is the same in and out of the
cell, and water moves in and out evenly. In facilitated diffusion carrier proteins in the cell
membrane move substances, such as glucose, into the cell without energy.
Active transport is the transport of materials against a gradient that requires the use
of cellular energy. Active transport uses carrier proteins that act as a pump to move ions and
molecules across the membrane. The sodium-potassium pump in animals is an example of
this. It moves sodium out of the cell and potassium into it using about one third of its total
energy budget. In plants active transport allows the plant to...