Running Head: ADHD ON INTELLIGENCE Social and Bio-genetic Influences of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Child Intelligence The subject of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has undergone intense research in the past decade. Much of this is rooted in the fact that approximately 5% of children are affected with the disorder. Children with ADHD are identified as having increased behavioral difficulties because of excessive motor activities, poor self regulation and inattentiveness (Dulkan et al., 1997). It has been found that as many as 30% of children inflicted with ADHD have learning disabilities with academic underachievement becoming a common correlate. Since these children do not meet the expectations of society and their learning environment they are usually met with anger, punishment, and rejection. In turn these children develop a low-self esteem and low levels of motivation (Morgan, 1997).
The etiology of ADHD is still a mystery to researchers. Within the field there are many correlates to biological (genetic) and social causes.
The present paper seeks to explore current research through investigating the social and bio-genetic influence of ADHD on child intelligence. Testing and treatments of those with ADHD will also be discussed. In accordance with Dulcan et al. (1997) ADD, ADD-H, ADHD, although not identical, will be considered interchangeably due to similarity.
Characteristics and Testing of ADHD Intelligence Even though ADHD occurs in people of every intelligence, a majority of children affected experience academic problems. These children may have specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, or may have multiple learning problems (Beiderman et al., 1993). In a study by MacLeod et al. (1996) comparing ADHD children with those unaffected, those with the disorder performed significantly worse than the others. Learning disabilities can be said to arise from attentional difficulties in the classroom setting. Many of these difficulties occur in tasks where listening and...