WAR In 1763, Great Britain, issued a proclamation that set the Appalachian Mountain range as the boundary line for westward expansion. This gave the colonist a feeling of being cheated or held back. Not only did the Proclamation of 1763 forbade movement west, but also required all people who were living there already, to move back east. This was King George III's attempt at easing the tension with North America. The proclamation did not really bring about the thought of independence, but did perk an ear. The colonist asked, "What was the purpose of French and Indian war?" With the French and Indian was just recently over, the English parliament decided to pass the Sugar Act. This act would offset the war debt and help pay for the colonies and newly acquired territories. The act raised duties on imported items such as sugar, textiles, coffee, wines, and indigo. Foreign made Rum and French wines were illegal to import, and duties doubled on goods shipped from England.
This was not popular with the colonist. The act was not new tax but an alteration of the 1753 Molasses Act. Colonists got around the old tax by smuggling but with the new act in place it lowered the duty from six penny on a barrel of molasses to a three penny. The difference was that now it was made sure that the tax was paid. The Colonist were now confused, they could not objected to the duties they have been acknowledging since 1733. The Americans did not really know what to do or how to act, but now both ears were perked and waiting for Great Britain's next move.
In May of 1764, James Otis brought about the issue of Taxation without representation. In the same meeting in Boston he urged a united response from the colonist to the recent acts passed by England. In July of that same year Otis published "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved." His book and ides began to take hold in the colonies. The very next mount Merchants, in Boston, began a boycott of British "luxury goods." James Otis had put an idea in to the heads of the colonist and most all agreed with him.
The first direct tax ever levied on the colonist was the Stamp Act 1765. Every thing must have a stamp, from legal documents, to playing cards. This tax would help pay for the cost of British military organization in America. British military believed that Great Britain was deliberately trying to weaken the colonies. In response to this, Sons of Liberty acts sprang up everywhere. In Boston, they went as far as violence with the destruction of offices and even Governor Hutchison's home. Other colonists supported a more passive, but just as effective attitude. These people wanted economic sanctions and the Stamp Act was violated openly everywhere as a form of protest. Boycotts become the norm and even women were allowed to enter the protest. This was very strange for that day in age. All this bec ame known as the Stamp Act Crisis. Though no stamp commissioner was actually tarred and feathered, this Medieval brutality was a popular form of 18th century mob violence in the colonies, particularly against tax collectors. Things got so intense that on March 18, 706, the stamp act was repeatedly, but not with out a hidden thorn. The Declaratory Act was put in place of the stamp act, with claimed the parliament had the right to rule the colonies in "all cases whatsoever", this included taxation. It also shoved support for the idea of taxation with the representation. The ears are perked and now teeth are starting to and colonists are starting to get angry.
All the acts passed contributed to the tension between the colonies and England, but the Townshend Acts of 1767, stood out to me. The Townshend Acts brought about many new and important duties. Everything was taxed paper, ink, teas, everything that came into the Americans. This really out raged the Americans. Sons of Liberty urged the renewable of boycotts of English goods. Some shop owners effused to follow the boycott and there houses were stoned. Daughters of liberty increased the sale and production of domestic cloth. Wearing "homespun" products became popular and a way of showing patriotism. The English noticed this was bad and soon appealed all but one tax, the tea tax. They kept this one tax just to remind the colonist of Parliament's "right" to tax.
For a while Colonists protesting English rule, mobs, and patriotism started becoming a big part of America life. Until one day a mob of people were harassing a few British soldiers who then shot back into the crowd. The soldiers killed three, mortally wounded two others, and injured six. After British troops withdrew out of Boston onto nearby harbor islands, eight men along with the British captain, Thomas Preston, were arrested and charged with murder. This incident was very instrumental in fueling the conflict. New England had resorted to killing. The colonists were now ready to bite back.
For the next three years, things were calm and nothing really happened. England saw that the colonists were extremely upset and restless, so they tried to sit back and let things cool down. But in 1773, England made a big mistake. England put in a place a tea act which put a three penny tax on all tea arriving in the colonies. This tax also helps the almost bankrupt British East India Company a virtual tea monopoly. A ship, Dartmouth, sat in harbor, with tea on board. A meeting was held in Boston, and it was decided that colonists wanted to send the ship back to England and not pay the tax. On December 16, 1773, 8,000 Boston residents gathered to hear Samuel Adams tell them that Hutchison not to let the ship out until the tax was paid. That night the famous "Boston Tea Party" took place.
Activist disguised as Mohawks, boarded the ships and dumped all 342 containers of tea in to the Boston harbor. Finally the colonist become fully resistant and will not take it any more. The conflict reached the breaking point.
Following the Boston Tea Party, Act upon Act was passed by the parliament. These became known as the Intolerable Acts. The Intolerable Acts closed Boston Port until tea is paid for, moved trials of officials to London and required soldiers into the homes of colonist. All the acts were outrageous to the colonist as so pushed them beyond the breaking point. Now was the time for resistance. The First Continental Congress met in fall on 1729. They made it clear not to pay any taxes and not to abide by British rules. Colonist also decided to stop the slave trade.
Now the conflict was exploding and war emanate. Small skirmishes and protest were popping up everywhere. Most were against the British and their army. Thing got so intense that Massachusetts was declared in a state of rebellion. The colonist started sto ck piling guns and ammo. General Gage of the British military is instructed to arrest leaders and seize stores. Late one evening on April 18, the portrait leaders head of this. That night Paul Revere made is famous ride. The next day at Lexington green, minutemen intersected 800 of Gage's men on there way to close stores in Concord. Shots are fired killing eight wading, ten colonists. More minute men begin to gather at Concord Bridge, and the British are forced to retreat to Boston. Over all 100 Lobster, back were killed, an American scored her first victory against the British. The shots have been fired people killed and there is turning back. As King George said, "Blows will decide!"