Age of Industry
Section 1:Living from the Land
- During the late 1700's and early 1800's, great changes took place in the lives and work of people in several parts of the Western world.
- These changes resulted from the development of industrialization. The term Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself.
- The Industrial Revolution began in Britain (a country now known as the United Kingdom) during the late 1700's.
- It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800's. By the mid-1800's, industrialization was widespread in western Europe and the northeastern United States.
- The introduction of power-driven machinery and the development of factory organization during the Industrial Revolution created an enormous increase in the production of goods.
- Before the revolution, manufacturing was done by hand, or by using animal power or simple machines.
Most people worked at home in rural areas.
- A few worked in shops in towns and belonged to associations called guilds.
- The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop.
- Power-driven machines replaced handwork, and factories developed as the most economical way of bringing together the machines and the workers to operate them.
Section 2:The Beginnings of Change
- As the Industrial Revolution grew, private investors and financial institutions provided money for the further expansion of industrialization.
- Financiers and banks thus became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. For the first time in European history, wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and organization of manufacturing.
- Historians have disagreed about the overall effect of the Industrial Revolution on people's lives.
- Some historians have emphasized that the revolution greatly increased the production...