Section 1: British and American Revolutions
- The Seven Years' War began in Europe in 1756. It had already begun in North America in 1754, when British and French troops clashed.
- In America, the war was called the French and Indian War. In Europe, Britain and its ally, Prussia, fought France and its allies, Austria and Russia. Prussia did most of the fighting in Europe, while Britain battled France in North America and India.
- The war ended in 1763 in a brilliant triumph for Britain. France lost almost all its territories in North America and India.
- Britain won Canada and all French possessions east of the Mississippi River. Queen Anne, the first British monarch, died in 1714.
- Her second cousin George, a German prince, was her closest Protestant relative and became king. British law prohibited a Roman Catholic from being monarch.
- George I did not speak English well.
He chose his council of ministers from the Whig Party and seldom attended council meetings. His chief minister, Sir Robert Walpole, took control of the council--and the British cabinet system of government began to develop.
- Walpole is considered Britain's first prime minister. George I's son became king in 1727. George II was also a German and, like his father, left much authority to his Cabinet.
Section 2: A King Returns to the throne
- George III succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760 and reigned until 1820. George III was born in England.
- He wanted to regain some of the king's powers and tried to build up his following in Parliament.
- But after the Revolutionary War in America broke out in 1775, Parliament began to lose faith in the king's policies. A sickness that made George appear to be mentally ill further...