An analysis of intervention processes on academic performance on individuals with Nonverbal learning disorders
An individual changes, physically, psychosocially, and cognitively from birth towards death. Sigelman (1999) describes development as a multidiscipline, lasting, multidirectional process. Sigelman explains that this process involves the individual adapting to their cultural and social environments. The investigation of the adaptation process is interrelated to the individual's cognitive processing ability. The significance of academic performance of individuals and their process of adaptation through the lifespan is best explained by defining, examining and contrasting Non-verbal learning disability paradigm, in particular Visual-spatial -organisational processing, via Sensorimotor and Preoperational stages of Piaget cognitive development theory. The impact of intervention methods will be analysed by the Concrete and Formal operational stages of Piaget cognitive development theory, Bybee and Sund (1982), Lee (2000).
Broadly defined, nonverbal learning disorders are characterized individuals with brain malfunctions that have an association with learning difficulties, Molenarr-Klumper (2002).
For example, common brain malfunctions are combinations of right and left hemisphere malfunctions, white matter deficiency, (irregularity in the protective layer (white matter) around the never vessels, and prefrontal syndrome, (below average functioning of the front part of the brain), Molenarr-Klumper (2002). Put simply, the bundles of fibres than connect the various parts of the brain have not developed normally in some places and this impairs communication between parts of the brain.
The causes of these deficiencies in neuroanatomical development are summarized into two areas; genetic and environmental. Genetic causes are normally determined by the analysis of genetic structures, for example, their chromosomal and DNA components, and the relationship to family and inheritance. Raskind (2000), via the collaborated research of Froster (1993), Rabin (1993), Grigorenko (2001) pinpointed the relationship of chromosomes that effect individuals with non-verbal processing disorders, for example, 6p21.3 (DYX2) which displayed visual identification and orthographic...