Anatomy notes on dna and rna- very descriptive

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-Diagram of Dna-

T-nucleobase not in Rna

Meischer- nucleic acid, 1st saw Dna, 1868

Pauling- Structure of Dna, triple strand.

Feulgen- staining dna, whre it is located.

Levene- Dna a contained A-G(purines) and T-C(pyrimidines). Sugar and phosphate present. Thought equal amounts present.

Chargaff- diff. Amounts of all four, t-a c-g

Watson/Crick- base of Rosalind Franklin, double coil helix.

Fanklin-xray crystallography findings. Noble peace award.

Okazaki-leading strand, lagging strand

Nirenberg/Khorana-64 codons

Collins-Human genome project

nucleotide(basice building block of nucleic acid)-nucleobase,sugar,phosphate group.

Adenine and Guaninie- purine. Double rings

Cytosine/Thymine- pyrimidine-single rings

Adenine/thymine/cytosine/guanine -DNA


Dna - negative charge, 2nm wide, 10 base pairs. 1mm-1,000,000 nm, 1mm-500.000 DNA

46 chromosomes

codon - 3 bases

Dna,Rna- tells cell what to do, enzymes to make, reproduce.

Dna- in the genes of the chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell. mitochondria, chloroplasts, centrioles, plastids.

Rna- in the nucleus + out in the cytoplasm. 90% in cytoplasm- ribosomes

10% in nucleus- mRna

Dna- Deoxyribose sugar- thymine, double strand, nucleus

Rna- ribose sugar - uracil, single strand, nucleus, cytoplasm

64 codons for 20 amino acids

Messenger Rna- message from Dna in nucles out to cytoplasm to transfer Rna and ribosomes.

Transfer Rna- feels out messenger Rna for message. Gives the amino acids to the ribosomes.

Ribosomal Rna- links together the amino acids gotten from transfer Rna to form protiens.

Replication - dna makes copy of itself

Transcription- dna makes messenger Rna

Translation- making of protien


Polyribosome- ribosomes with the same mRna

Initiation- Aug to begin making protien

Elongation- amino acids brought in by mRna

Termiination- stop at uga, uaa, or uag

Frameshift mutation- delteion and addition of bases

Genetic engineering- insulin, growth hormone, relaxin, tpa

Genetic diseases- tay sachs, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, huntingtons

Dna incorrect- cretinism, albinism, tay sachs, pku

- factors- xray,