Ancient Egypt’s Government         In the beginning Egypt had a monarchy

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Ancient Egypt's Government In the beginning Egypt had a monarchy based government. The pharaoh was the head of state and the representative of the gods on earth. The government brought order to society through the construction of temples, the creation of laws, taxation, the organization of trade with neighbors, and the defense of the country's interests. The pharaoh was assisted by a hierarchy of advisors, priests, officials and administrators, who were responsible for the affairs of the state and the welfare of the people.

Ancient Egypt could not have achieved such a great state without the co-operation of all levels of the population. The pharaoh was at the top of the social hierarchy. Next to him, the most powerful officers were the viziers, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. Under them were the high priests, followed by royal administrators who ensured that the 42 district governors carried out the pharaoh's orders.

At the bottom of the hierarchy were the scribes, artisans, farmers and laborers.

Throughout the ancient governments days there were many pharaohs. In fact, according to the Mysteries of Egypt Website, the Pharaohs began ruling Egypt in 3000 B.C. when upper and lower Egypt were united. During the Old Kingdom, they considered themselves to be living gods who ruled with absolute power. They built pyramids in their greatness but left no official records of their achievements. During the Middle Kingdom, the pharaohs no longer considered themselves to be living gods, but instead the representatives of the gods on earth.

To show their image as powerful rulers, the pharaohs represented themselves in writings and sculptured pictures on temple walls. They often showed themselves as warriors killing all of the enemies.

Not all of the Pharaohs were men nor were they Egyptians. Scarlett Harris, a student at Winship School, says that the first woman to become a pharaoh was Queen Hatshepsut, who was one of the only three women to become a pharaoh. There were many men such as Rameses III, and Rameses II.

Today the government is the supreme executive and administrative part of the State. It consists of the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, who supervises the work of the government. The Parliament may withdraw confidence from the Cabinet or any Cabinet member.

The People's Assembly is the legislative branch of the State. It approves the general policy, new laws, the budget and the development plans. According to the Constitution, the People's Assembly is made up of 444 directly elected members and 10 members appointed by the President, who serve for a term of five years. The Shura Council is Egypt's consultative council. It offers advice, and proposes new laws and regulations to the People's Assembly.

The judiciary authority is exercised through four categories of courts of justice: the Supreme Constitutional Court, which is the highest judicial body, the Court of Cessation, the seven courts of Appeal in the various Govern orates, and the Summary Tribunals in the districts.

The political system is based on a Multi-party system. Law 40 of 1977 regulates the formation of political parties in Egypt. This law prohibits the formation of religious-based political parties. There are currently 14 active political parties representing various stands across the political system. The National Democratic Party currently holds the majority of seats in the People's Assembly.

Administratively, Egypt is divided into 26 Govern orates, each headed by a Governor who is appointed by the President. Within their districts, local government units establish and manage all public utilities, provide services, and designate industrial areas. Local Popular Councils are elected bodies that work closely with local government administrative units at various levels. Egypt's President today is Hosny Mubarak. He was first elected in 1981.

Today's government in Egypt is similar to the old government. This is because both were run by one person. Then branches off into little sections of the government. Now the government is more in order then it used to be. Egypt has a great government.