Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language. (Newmark, 1988).
Nabokov writes that translation is the rendering, as closely as the associative and syntactical capacities of another language allow the exact contextual meaning of the original. (Nabokov, 1964, 1988:11).
Translation is the way of adapting the message of the source language parts into target language as accurate as possible in other ways it is the transposition of thoughts expressed in one language by one social group into the appropriate expression of another group.
Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions." (Toury 1978:200). Nevertheless this sentence conveys translation is inevitably faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects in a source text and of finding the most appropriate technique in the target language .
These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two languages concerned (Nida 1964:130).
Etymologically, translation is a carrying across or bringing across. The Latin "translatio" derives from the perfect passive participle, "translatum," of "transferre" ("to transfer" from "trans," "across" + "ferre," "to carry" or "to bring"). The modern Romance, Germanic and Slavic European languages have generally formed their own equivalent terms for this concept after the Latin model after "transferre" or after the kindred "traducere" ("to bring across" or "to lead across") (Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 83.)Translation should take every context; rules of grammar, conventions, idioms, and in short culture of both language into account, and investigate those context as effectively as possible.
1.2 What is language?Language is the characteristic of human being. Animals' language is only a stimulus-bound, which can't compare with...