I. The Narodna Odbrana The Narodna Odbrana was a revolutionary organisation that had its roots in the annexation crisis of 1908, when Austria-Hungary annexed the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina. It had adherents in Bosnia-Herzegovina which was the bone of contention generated in the Balkans before World War I. The Serbian government withdrew support of the organisation after the annexation crisis had passed. The Narodna Odbrana was there to prepare people psychologically for the clash with Austria-Hungary. To do this, confidential men were spread throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina and an Underground Railroad was established between Serbia and Bosnia.
II. The Black Hand Government officials of Austria-Hungary were not aware of the operations of the Black Hand. So they did not notice that the Black Hand had infiltrated the Noradna Odbrana and created a two-faced organisation. Organised in 1903 to kill King Alexander and Queen Draga of Serbia, it received an official status in 1911.
By 1914 the Black Hand came into conflict with the Radical party in Serbia. In the 1920's Professor Stanoyevich created a controversy when he published a book entitled "The Murder of Archduke Francis Ferdinand". The chief victim of which was Colonel Dimitriyevich of the Serbian secret service. He was, according to the author, the one who planned the murder as leader of the Black Hand.
Article 19 of the Black Hand charter of 1911 stated that the Central Committee of the Black Hand in Belgrade had to give permission for any revolutionary activity to be carried out. Curiously enough, article 16 said that the president and secretary of the Black Hand could act on their own and report to the Central Committee later. This vagueness in the charter led to independent action. In the Salonica trial of Dimitriyevich in 1917, he was accused of plotting to kill Crown Prince Alexander,