Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a disorder in which there are persistent patterns of inattention and/ or impulsivity. The disorder can span across social, academic or occupational functioning. The diagnosis and treatment for adults and children must be comprehensive, so Doctor's can determine other disorders that may be similar or associated with ADHD.
Although the exact causes of ADHD remain unknown, current research suggests that heredity and neurological based condition could be the causes of the disorder. Furthermore, more boys are affected than girls (DSM IV, 1994).
Some potential risk factors include genetic and environmental. Research has suggested that a child may inherit the gene from a parent, without the individual ever knowing he has the disorder or being diagnosed. Environmental factors can exacerbate the disorder, by stressor's such as familial discord or divorce (Hedayat & Smucker, 2001). Peer relations can be affected because of the child's aggressive behavior, which can lead to social isolation.
The academic environment of the child can be affected, as well. A child's behavior can vary depending on the teachers management style. The behavior interventions used by teacher's are essential for ADHD children. If a teacher is not consistent or does not use positive reinforcement, this can have a negative affect on the student.
Reactions of children and adults with ADHD can vary greatly depending on the degree of education and knowledge parent's, teacher's, physician's, and other concerned parties have of the disorder. Parents, teacher's and authority figures may view the child as defiant, because of the behavior. The developmental delay associated with ADHD may make the child seem irresponsible and immature compared to his/her peers. Issues during normal developing adolescents of identity, independence, peer pressures, and sexuality can be overwhelming, but for ADHD adolescents their ability to plan for the future...