Essay by beastmoto10101University, Bachelor'sA+, November 2014

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Date_____________ Per_____



Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, is known as a


2. A rift valley forms at a __________________________________

  • The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding

the ground like an accordion are called ____________________

4. Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called _______________________

5. Tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash are called


6. The place where two plates come together is known as a ____________________________

  • What principle states that the geologic processes that change Earth today also changed Earth in the

past? ____________________________

8. Pangaea is a ____________________________________________________________________

9. A fossil formed when minerals replace all or part of an organism is called a

10. Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock is called a _________________

11. A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level is called a __________________________

12. Before lava reaches the surface, the molten material is called _____________________________

13. Volcanoes would most likely to be located along _______________ _____________ridge where

a plate is ______________________________________

14. S waves are also known as ________________________________

  • Which scale would most likely be used to tell how much earthquake damage was done to homes

and other buildings? ________________________________

16. In a normal fault, the part of the fault that lies below the other part is called the _______________

17. A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is called a(n) _______________________________

18. Fossils are _____________________________________________________________________

  • An intrusion of igneous rock is ________________in relation to the sedimentary rock layers

through which it passes?

  • The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers an earthquake is

called the ________________________________

21. What can cause damage days or months after a large earthquake __________________________

22. Radioactive dating works best with what type of rocks? __________________________

23. Sometimes forces inside Earth turn rock layers over completely. This is called _______________

  • When magma hardens in a volcano's pipe, the result will eventually be a landform called a


25. A volcano hazards that is made up of fine, rocky particles as small as a speck of dust is


26. A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a converging boundary produces a


27. When ash, cinders, and bombs build up in a steep pile around a volcano's vent, the result is a


28. The main hazard from a quiet volcanic eruption is ________________________________

29. Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move _______________________________

  • The process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle

is known as __________________________________

31. Geologists use radioactive dating to ____________________________________________

32. The time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample of a radioactive element to decay is

the element's ___________________________

33. If geologists detect many small earthquakes in the area near a volcano, what can they infer about

the volcano? _________________________________________________________________

34. Earth's earliest atmosphere lacked which gas that is necessary for life as we know it to exist


Study Guide ~ 2nd 9 Weeks Exam

Answer Section


1. transform boundary

2. divergent plate boundary

3. P waves

4. shearing

5. composite

6. convergent boundar

7. uniformitarianism

8. the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago

9. petrified fossil

10. fossil

11. plateau

12. magma

13. mid ocean ridge where a plate is subducted

14. secondary waves

15. the Mercalli scale

16. footwall.

17. antisyncline

18. the preserved remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past.

19. always younger

20. focus

21. an aftershock

22. igneous rocks

23. folding

24. volcanic neck

25. volcanic ash

26. mountain range

27. cinder cone volcano.

28. lava flows

29. slower

30. subduction.

31. determine the absolute ages of rocks

32. half-life

33. It is probably about to erupt

34. oxygen