Budgeting terms:Feedback control:In the context of budgeting, this could create a dynamic self regulating system where the actual result for a period are compared with what should have been achieved and thew difference used to initiate remedial or capitalizing action. This could mean a change in methods of operation, or change in the budget itself.
Feedfoward controls:Such as system is defined by Bhasker and Housden as a ÃÂmeasurement and prediction system which assesses the system and predicts the output at some future dateÃÂ.
Budgetary slack:As defined by Schiff and Lewin as the difference between the total resources available to the firm and the total resources necessary to achieve the organizational goal.
In essence it implies a potential for underutilization of resources and under achieving by executives such executives create slack in their budgets by underestimating revenues and over stating costs. This in the context of participatory budgeting will cause an extra allocation of resources to give greater flexibility in the achieving of goals.
Aspiration Level:This is defined in EH Caplan ÃÂManagement Accounting- and Behaviorial scienceÃÂ as a managers internal expectation of his own performance. Evidence suggests that repeated failures will cause a lowering of expectations while repeated successes will inspire the recipient on to greater things.
Control Limits:Are defined in the CIMA terminology as ÃÂlimits in exception reporting in quantities or value outside which special managerial action is triggerdÃÂ.
The necessary preliminary steps before commencing to prepare budgets include:-consideration for the longer term plan for the business and setting goals from such aspects as market share profit and capital investment..
-Confirmation if the organization, structure of the business, including profit costs and investment centers. Where necessary this will be linked with statement of cost and transfer pricing.
-Issue of budget instructions-Preparation of forecasts of the relevant exogenous conditions...