Benito Mussolini (1883 - 1945).
The Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was the head of the Italian government from 1922 to 1943.
Mussolini was a Fascist dictator, and led Italy into three successive wars, the third of which brought the end of his regime.
Mussolini grew up in a Middle-Class family, with his father working as a blacksmith and his mother working at an elementary school.
At the age of 18, in 1901, he got his Diploma and taught secondary school for a short time (despite his having been a poor student). After his brief time as a teacher he exiled himself to Switzerland from 1902 - 1904 in order to avoid military service. During that time he based his lifestyle on the likes of Nietzsche and other notable fascist writers, on the advocates of will, force and superego.
Mussolini grew more and more active in politics during the early 1900s.
Mussolini served in World War I and returned to Italy soon after to form the Fascist party in 1919. In the troubled post war period, Mussolini formed the Black Shirts, (Fasci di Combattimento) he was elected to parliament in 1921 and the Fascist party was officially organized.
In 1922 Mussolini sent the fascists to march on Rome, where King Victor Emmanuel III called on Mussolini to form a Cabinet.
As premier, Mussolini slowly turned the government into a dictatorship, and in 1924 the Socialist Deputy Matteotti was murdered. By 1928 Mussolini pretty much had control. Opposition by the church was ended in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty.
At first, Mussolini wasn't too friendly towards Hitler and the Nazi government, especially their plans regarding Austria, however after Mussolini's isolation that was a result of an attack on Ethiopia in 1935, he had little choice but to approach Germany again.