A) Home of the prestigious Koranic Sankore University and other madras's, Timbuktu was an intellectual and spiritual capital and a center for the propagation of Islam throughout Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. Timbuktu is located on the on the southern edge of the Sahara, about 8 mi (13 km) north of the Niger River. In the 14th century Timbuktu became the focal point for the gold-salt trade. During the height of Timbuktu's history it became a gathering place for Muslims scholars and Moroccan traders who traded slaves and gold for the clothes and horses of other lands.
B) The Liberator was an anti-enslavement paper published by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. This weekly newspaper was in print for more than three decades, from its first issue in 1831 till the end of the Civil War in 1865. In his paper Garrison openly advocated for the immediate emancipation of all slaves.
This was an idea that was not very popular even among Northerners who where against slavery. Through his writing in the Liberator Garrison gained a quite a following amongst abolitionists and ex-slaves.
c) In 1850 congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law. This law gave anyone claming ownership of a black person the right to carry this person away into bondage with out a trail and with out giving the "fugitive" the right to testify on his own behalf. People suspected of being a runaway slave could be arrested without warrant and turned over to a claimant on nothing more than his sworn testimony of ownership. Not only did this threaten the freedom of fugitive slaves it also endangered the freedom of free Africans living In the Northern states. Under this Law anyone found guilty of aiding an escaped slave could be fined and may be sentenced to jail time.