Carbon Family

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Carbon Family The Carbon family is made up of five elements; carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead. This family is found in, group 14.

Carbon the first in the family is the sixth most abundant element in the known Universe. Common carbon compounds include the gasses carbon dioxide and methane.

Most carbon is taken from the ground in the form of coal and diamonds. Carbon has a very high melting point at 3500* C and a very high boiling point at 4827* C.

Carbon's atomic mass is 12.0107 amu; it has six protons, neutrons and electrons.

Carbon is classified as a non-metal.

Carbon was known to the ancients, and its discoverer is unknown. Carbon is used for steel and filters. (Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Elements. com-Carbon.) Silicon, meaning "flint", is the second most abundant chemical compound in the Earth's crust. You may know it better as common beach sand. It is found in sand, quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, jasper, and opal.

Silicon has a melting point of 1410* C and a boiling point of 2355* C. It's atomic number is 14, it s atomic mass is 28.0855 amu. Silicon has 14 protons, electrons and neutrons, and is classified as a metalloid Jon Berzelius discovered silicon in 1823. It is used for glass and semi- conductors. (Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Germanium, like silicon, is used in semi-conductors. Unlike silicon it is rather rare. It is found in refining copper, zinc, and lead.

Germanium has an atomic number of 32 and an atomic mass of 72.61 amu. It's melting point is 937.4 C and a boiling point at 2830 *C. Germanium has 32 protons and electrons, and 41 neutrons, it is classified as a metalloid.

Discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler, germanium is used as a semi- conductor. (Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Geranium) Tin, mentioned in the Hebrew scripture, has two allotropic forms, on warming, gray, or a-tin, with a cubic structure that changes at 13.2*C into white, or b-tin, the ordinary form of the metal. Tin is usually found in ore cassiterite.

Tin has a melting point of 231.9* C and a boiling point of 2270* C. It's atomic number is 50 and atomic mass is 118.71 amu. Tin has 50 protons and electrons, and 69 neutrons, it is classified as an other metal.

Tin was also known to the ancients and the discoverer is unknown. It is used to coat steel cans. (Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Last is lead, also known to the ancients. Although lead is not very common in the Earth's crust, what is there is available and easy to obtained from galena.

Lead has a melting point at 327.5* C and a boiling point at 1740* C. It's atomic number is 82 and atomic mass is 207.2 amu. Lead has 82 protons and electrons, and 125 neutrons. Lead is classified as an other metal.

(Bentor, Yinon. Chemical Elements .con-Lead) The carbon family is related by it chemical relationship.