Chem Lab, do ions combine in definite ratios.

Essay by betobertoHigh School, 11th gradeA+, May 2003

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LAB 3.Ø.Ø: do ions combine in definite ratios


The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether ions combine in definite ratios or not. To observe, and create a table of the different ions.


If copper (II) sulfate when mixed with sodium carbonate at different quantities combine to form ions in definite ratios.


I believe that the ions will combine in definite ratios due to the fact that the valance electrons will not be changing throughout any chemicals; consequently the ions must combine in definite ratios.


A technique is performed in which copper (II) sulfate and sodium carbonate are placed together in various test tubes, with various quantities of each chemical and a chemical reaction should happen. The time for the two chemicals to completely react is about five ? ten minutes. The temperatures of the solutions, the quantities of the solutions are all controlled variables.

The chemicals are known to form a precipitate.


-Safety glasses-10 ml copper (II0 sulfate solution

-Seven test tubes-10 ml sodium carbonate solution

-1 test tube rack- Tap water

-Masking Tape

-Two Eye Droppers


1.Placed goggles on face.

2.Numbered the test tubes from 1 ? 5 and place in test tube rack.

3.Washed the test tubes with tap water.

4.Using the eyedropper, added the appropriate number of copper (II) sulfate to the numbered test tube.

5.Using the second eyedropper, added the appropriate number of sodium carbonate to the numbered test tubes.

6.Swirled test tubes gently to mix the contents.

7.Allowed the precipitate to settle for 7 minutes.

8.Recorded observations.


Table 1.1

Test Tube #(Column 1)

Copper (II) Sulfate Drops (column2)

Sodium Carbonate Drops (Column 3)

General Observations- ColourPrecipitate (column4)

119Light BlueLittle

237Medium BlueMedium

355Dark BlueLarge

473Medium BlueMedium...