The Chemistry of Natural Water
The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a
problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in
Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in
the household and in the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to
leave a residue when it evaporates. Aside from being aesthetically unpleasing to look at, the build up of
hard water residue can result in the clogging of valves, drains and piping. This build up is merely the
accumulation of the minerals dissolved in natural water and is commonly called scale.
Other than clogging plumbing, the build up of scale poses a large problem in the industrial world. Many
things that are heated are often cooled by water running thru piping. The build up of scale in these pipes
can greatly reduce the amount of heat the cooling unit can draw away from the source it is trying to heat.
This poses a potentially dangerous situation. The build up of excess heat can do a lot of damage; boilers
can explode, containers can melt etc. On the flip side of the coin, a build up of scale on an object being
heated, a kettle for example, can greatly reduce the heat efficiency of the kettle. Because of this, it takes
much more energy to heat the kettle to the necessary temperature. In the industrial world, this could
amount to large sums of money being thrown into wasted heat.
In addition to clogging plumbing and reducing heating efficiency, the build up of hard water also
adversely affects the efficiency of many soaps and cleansers. The...
... occurs naturally without the acceleration due to human interference this process takes thousands of years to complete. Algal blooms leads to such water quality deterioration of water quality that ...
... operations of men and equipment. During both World War's pyrotechnics were mixed with chemicals such aschlorosulphonic acid, hexachloroethane, or titanium tetrachloride,which reacted with the water vapour ...
Illegal Drug Market - Explains the chemistry,effects, history, and uses of drugs like halocinogens, amphetamines, etc.
... an organic substance used as a medicine in China for hundreds of years. In the 1930s it was sold in the U.S ... An industrial strength cleaning agent available through industrial cleaning supply stores. Next is lye, which is a drain cleaner ...
... the water particles in clouds. Mixed with rain and snow, they fall back to earth, usually hundreds of miles from the original source of the ...
... Bamforth of the University of California. After malting, the barley is milled and mixed with hot water. In ... each year. That's enough to buy every U.S. public school student a state-of-the-art computer. Beer has had mostly a negative effect on society, however it is hard to imagine a world without ...
... 4: Water Quality parameters http://www.uky.edu/WaterResources/Watershed/KEB_AR/ Ø Internet 5: Determination of Carbonate Content of a ... REFERENCES Ø Faust, D. S. and Aly, M. O. 1981. Chemistry of natural waters. Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc. Ø Golterman, H. L., Clymo, R ...
Project on the Chemistry of Hairspray. Includes bibliography, chemical structure, ingredients, how it works, and a reflection on the project.
... type of protective "plastic" layer. This layer provides for a more "natural" look, and keeps water away ... the qualities which consumers look for. Polydimethylsiloxane, is a form of silicone used in hairspray. Silicones are used to make hairspray because they do not cause buildup ...
... egg proteins that were separated from each other, are no longer like that. They then form a network of connected proteins. The water that the proteins floated in, is now captured and held in the protein web. If you leave the ...