Chemistry Project: Acids and Bases & the pH Scale
Acids and Bases are two groups of chemical compounds that generally have opposite
characteristics. They have there own unique traits, acids taste sour, turn litmus red while
bases taste bitter and turn litmus blue. The term pH relates to measuring the acidity or
alkalinity of a solution, such as vinegar, or even a damp substance like soul.
The neutral pH is 7, which is essentially water, with lower numbers indicating acidity and
higher numbers indicating alkalinity. Hydronium ions (H3O+) are formed when water
molecules (H2O) bond with hydrogen ions (H+). Hydronium ions are positively charged
because of their extra hydrogen ion. Hydroxide ions (OH-) are produced when water
molecules (H2O) ionize to become hydronium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).
Substances with a high concentration of hydroxide ions are bases. Bases have a pH rating
of seven or higher. Solutions of ions conduct an electric current, similar in the way that
wire does. Ions can move about in a solution and carry a charge. If they can do carry the
charge they are electrolytes.
The Bronsted-Lowry theory states that an acid is a proton donor and a base a
proton acceptor. Although the acid must still contain hydrogen, the Bronsted-Lowry
theory does not require an aqueous medium. The Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids and
bases also explains why a strong acid displaces a weak acid from its compounds and
likewise for strong and weak bases. In the Lewis theory of acid-base reactions, bases
donate pairs of electrons and acids accept pairs of electrons. A Lewis acid is any
substance, such as the H+ ion, that can accept a pair of nonbonding electrons. Therefore, a
Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor. A Lewis base is any substance, such as the OH-
ion, that can donate a pair of nonbonding electrons. A Lewis...
... ). This allowed us to find the concentration of the divalent ions dissolved in solution. Based on this, we calculated the parts per million and the grains per gallon for each water sample. Finally, we took an AA reading for each sample ...
... acids and bases are: -Acids taste sour and bases taste bitter. -Acids turn blue litmus to red; bases turn red litmus to blue. -In a neutralization reaction, acids neutralize bases; and bases neutralize acids. -Acids release a hydrogen ion ...
... salt and brackish water; to most salt solutions, including chlorides, bromides, iodides, and sulfides; and to most oxidizing acids, organic acids, and alkaline solutions ... the position of the elements in the periodic table and: Electrical conductivity: Electrical conductivity takes place when ions or ...
The dissociation constants of weak monoprotic acids were determined with the aid of a buffer and pH meter.
... of the experiment: 1) several 10-mL and 50-mL graduated cylinders to measure the volumes of acid and base, and 2) a thermometer to record the ... 2 remaining buffer from part 2 was diluted with 50 mL of distilled water. The pH and temperature was measured for this part of the experiment. The last ...
G.C.S.E chemical reaction - rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid.
... indicators. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a monoprotic acid, which can dissociate (i.e., ionize) only once to give up one H+ ion (a single proton). In aqueous hydrochloric acid, the H+ joins a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O ...
... conduct electricity. This means that they form ions when dissolved in water. Arrhenius focused on what was formed when acids and bases dissociate into ions. The fact that acids react with many metals to form hydrogen gas ...
... carbonic acid and makes the child blood slightly alkaline and inhospitable for the virus. 17. A. QUOTE: "The biochemist shrugged. 'Chemical reaction of some sort. Acid could ...
Determination of Zinc and Nickel Concentration by (1) Ion-Exchange Chromatography Followed by Chelometric Titration, and by (2) Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of the Mixture
... a neutral aqueous solution was run through. The elements were determined quantitatively by titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This method is valued as a good estimate and is ...