Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships including those between a parent and child. Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Bowlby, was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings. Bowlby strongly believed that the earliest bonds were formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendously large impact that continues throughout life. As suggested, attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, which allows improvement throughout the child's chances of survival.
The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infant's needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. Attachment patterns that are established early in life can lead to a number of outcomes.
For example, children who are securely attached as infants tend to develop stronger self-esteem and better self-reliance as they grow older, opposed to children who do not have this opportunity throughout the beginning stages of life. These children also tend to be more independent, perform better in school, have successful social relationships, and experience less depression and anxiety.
Secure attachment is marked by distress when separated from caregivers and are joys when the caregiver returns. Children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers when the opportunity is given to show strengths and bonds at a young age. When the adult leaves, the child may be upset but he or she feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return.
When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so...