Chromosomes are fundamental to all life. There are 22 numbered pairs of chromosomes, plus two sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes in females are the two X chromosomes and in male they are an X and a Y chromosome. Human have 23 pair of chromosomes. Each chromosome has been assigned a number from largest to the smallest, the largest chromosome being number one. Therefore chromosome 18-chromosome studied in this paper- is one of the smallest. The genetic code of the chromosome is made of deoxyribonucleic acid-DNA. The structure of the DNA creates the alphabet and therefore the language of the genetic code. Each chromosome is a single very long piece of DNA and the genes are encoded along this length of DNA just as the words of this sentence are encoded in a line of letter in this text. The DNA is twisted, and wounded again, then looped and attached to a protein of scaffold to form a chromosome.
From the karyotype- arrengment of a particular person's chromosomes- and from the drawing of chromosome 18, the 19 distinct bands on chromosome 18 can be seen. But there are about 800 different genes and 85 million bases on chromosome 18. genes are responsible for making the proteins, and proteins do the work of the cell.
There are several gene disorders on chromosome 18 like Paget disease of bone, Schizophreia, Parkinson disease, Cholestasis, obesity, colorectal cancer, and more. in chromosomal disorder the individual has normal chromosomes, but there is a single mutation on that gene that resulted in disease. Single disorders can be recessive or dominant. Paget disease of bone- PDB- or osteitis deformans is our concern here.
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described the localized skeletal disease that is known is Paget's disease of the bone. Paget disease is...