There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. The
first explanation is known as classical conditioning. The second
explanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types of
learning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home,
school, and school.
Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran Petrovich
Pavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus was
the digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). His discovery was made
during a study on the salivation of dogs when given food. Pavlov
observed that the dogs began salivating at the sound of the
scientists footsteps and at their appearance into the room (231).
This led Pavlov to study the phenomenon further.
The experiments that Pavlov was originally observing were
based on the set of unconditioned stimulus and its unconditioned
response. What is meant by conditioned is that the response is
automatic and based on instinct. To compliment this name the
stimulus is known as the unconditioned stimulus (Myers 260).
With Pavlov's new observations a new set of stimulus and response
was found. This new set is known as the conditioned stimulus and
the conditioned response. What is meant by conditioned response
here is that the response was learned. The stimulus begins as
neutral and causes no conditioned response. However, if the
neutral stimulus can be associated with another stimulus, then it
becomes a conditioned stimulus.
Classical conditioning can be exemplified in the home,
school, and school. In the home a child could smell brownies
baking in the kitchen which makes her mouth water. The brownies
are the unconditioned stimulus, the smell is the conditioned
stimulus, and the watering of the mouth is the conditioned
response (Myers 267-68). In work a man may be waiting to be
fired. When he sees his boss he begins to sweat. The
unconditioned stimulus is getting fired,