Essay by Paul Smith1High School, 12th gradeC, February 1997

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It's about cloning...mostly of organisms...needs some work...could turn out to be friend did a little more than me and pulled off a B+ Good information...opinion needs to be developed more

Paul Smith

February 12, 1997

AP Biology

Mr. Cantor

Periods 3B-4


Cloning is the production of a group of genetically identical cells or organisms, all descended from a single individual. The members of a clone have the same characteristics, except where mutation and environmentally caused developmental variation have occurred. Cloning can occur naturally, but cloning can also be the result of biotechnology - "the harnessing of microbes and other cells to produce useful materials and facilitate industrial processes" - or more specifically genetic engineering - "a sophisticated technique through which genes can be moved from one type of cell to another, altering a cell's properties accordingly."

In the early 1970s Herbert Boyer (University of California Health Science Center in San Francisco) and Stanley Cohen (Stanford University) found that it was possible to "insert into bacteria genes they had removed from other bacteria."

Once inside the bacteria, the transported gene divided as the bacteria divided, which produced several clone cells each containing exact copies of the gene. This is called gene cloning.

Laboratory experiments have resulted in the successful IN VITRO FERTILIZATION of human eggs that led in 1993 to the "cloning" of human embryos by dividing such fertilized eggs at a very early stage of development. This technique, which does not produce a clone but a twin, had already been used successfully with sheep and other animals. Abnormal embryos were used in the human experiment and were later discarded. "The experiment caused an outcry from ethicists, religious leaders, and others, most of whom called for banning such procedures or establishing guidelines for them."

Some algae reproduce sexually and...