The Cold War was not an actual war at all. It was a period of technological, ideological, and economic competition between the United States and the Soviet Union. It lasted from 1947 to 1989, followed by the end of communism in the Soviet Union in 1991. No fighting occurred, as the war instead was basically an arms race involving both conventional and nuclear weapons, as well as propaganda and economical warfare that led to both positive and negative effects in both countries.
Tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union were put on hold during WWII, but resumed once it was over. The two main causes of tension were Communist ideology and Russia wanting to gain more territory. The two superpowers had been rivals since the czarist years. They had a sort of truce, but were not very friendly. 1947, the Marshall Plan was created to help the recovery in Europe.
This plan was known officially as the European Recover Program following its enactment. It was created to aid European States in reconstruction if certain requirements, such as making political reforms and accept some outside controls. However, the Soviet Union refused outside help.
The Soviet Union stated that "It may be noted that France has it's own economic plan ...Great Britain also has it's own economic program. It is widely noted that in the Soviet Union the basis of the ... restoration of the economy is the is the state socialist plan." (Statement of Position of the Soviet Government 5). The Soviets blocked access to Berlin, which was under four-power control despite being in Soviet Territory. However, supplies were snuck in anyway by air. Eventually, the blockade was lifted.
In 1953, Dwight Eisenhower was sworn in as president of the USA. Not much changed in the U.S.. However, when Nikita...