TORT - A Tort is a civil wrong that is outside of Contract Law and arises out of a recognition that a person is responsible for their acts and omissions when dealing with others. The term "Tort" refers to a number of different laws such as nuisance, trespass and assault. Torts action generally compensates the individual for personal loss where the loss was caused by another person. It is based on Common Law.
NEGLIGENCE - Negligence is one of many types of Torts. Negligence is now the dominant Tort and the focus of this topic.
DEFINITION: Conduct that falls below the standard of care demanded for the protection of others against the unreasonable risk of harm.
To establish a claim for Negligence the plaintiff must prove three essential elements:(1) the defendant owed the plaintiff a duty of care and not to cause him or her e injury, loss or damage in the circumstances of the case.
(2) the defendant breached the standard of care; -(3) the plaintiff suffered damage, injury or loss because of that breach. -(4) That the damage suffered by the plaintiff was not too remote - that is, the injury, loss or damage suffered would have been foreseen as a possible result of the breach of the duty by a reasonable person placed in the position of the defendant at the time when he or she breached the duty.
ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE1. DUTY OF CARE - Legal obligation on a person engaged in any activity to take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions that they can foresee would likely cause damage or injury to another personTo be liable in Negligence a 'duty of care' must be owed by one party to another. This rule was established in the House of Lords decision Donoghue v Stevenson (1932).