1. What developments in Europe created an interest in exploration by 1492?
By 1492, advances in navigation and naval architecture created an interest in exploration. The compass was adopted by the Europeans along with calculating latitude by using the quadrant, an instrument that measured the altitude of the polestar or the noonday sun and the astrolabe, an instrument that calculates the position of the sun and other major nearby stars with respect to both the horizon and the meridian. The advancement of ship design also created an interest in navigation by 1492. A method, called "tacking", enabled the vessel to sail against the wind, making ships more maneuverable and stable. Gunpowder was the last invention that the Europeans needed to go conquer the New World. Gun powder was first discovered after 1000 AD and was used to propel missiles from cannons, but as time moved on it was used in a hand held weapon that resembled the modern gun.
Overall, new instruments and vessel improvements had the Europeans enticed in exploration.
Treaty of Tordesillas: The Treaty of Tordesillas was enacted in 1494 that stated Brazil was awarded to Portugal.
3. What was the result of Spanish settlement on the native population?
The Spaniards seized Moctezuma II (Aztec Ruler) and robbed the wealthy Aztec treasury by taking advantage of the Aztec's beliefs. The Aztec's thought that the Europeans were white gods that Aztec myths said would one day return to the world of men. Later on, the Spanish leader, Hernando CortÃÂ¨s left to go to on an expedition sent from Cuba and the Aztec empire turned on the remaining Spaniards. Moctezuma was killed, and CortÃÂ¨s returned with a larger Spanish force as well as Indian allies. Right after they battled and the Spaniards won. The Aztec Empire...