China and India are the two countries that have the highest population in the world. Both countries have realised that family planning and population control had to happen around the 1950's for India and the 1970's for China. This essay will seek to compare and contrast China and India, focusing on what the major problems facing both are, why have they both had to implement policies regarding population control, and the long-term and short-term effects that these policies have on the two countries.
The major problem concerning China is over population. Due to overpopulation, the demand for energy to light every house and for petrol to fuel every car is becoming too great. With added pressure of providing for the people, more natural resources and fossil fuels are used up. There is also a shortage of jobs. China has a population of 1.31 billion people. In 2003, the total of number of unemployed people in China was 744,320,000.
The World Bank said that the total unemployment level was close to 10%, though that is only the number of people who are registered as unemployed. The real figure would be substantially greater. China is faced with, because of overpopulation, lack of space. Approximately 137 people live on each square kilometre of China's territory, China ranking 71st on the worlds list of the countries with the highest population densities. The world average is 43 people per square kilometre, making China three times the average figure. Also a pressing issue is the state of poverty in China, (due to the recent focus on a new type of capitalism, there are marked contrasts between rich and poor). The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation states that there is ample food to feed the population. The problem lies then in how effectively the food is distributed.