Short stories, poetry and drama are different types of literature but they share many of the same elements. Some of the many elements shared are figures of speech, conflict, foreshadowing.
One of the same elements short stories, poetry and drama have is setting. "The setting of a work of fiction establishes its historical, geographic, and physical context." (pg. 251.) Setting can also be important in short stories, poetry and drama because setting "encompasses a wide variety physical and cultural elements."( pg.251.) An example of setting in poems, plays, or short stories written in the Anglo-Saxon era or Renaissance without understanding the setting it is difficult to understand the cultural aspect poems, plays, or short story. The setting can add attitude to a short stories, poetry and drama, an example is how attitudes have changed towards women, and African Americans.
Short stories, and plays have narrators, but poems have voice who is the poems speaker.
The speaker is a persona that the poet creates. A narrator is "a person who tells the story." The narrator or voice can set the tone for the poem or play; if they are sarcastic then the play story or poem is sarcastic, but if they are serious then the tone is serious. The narrator is different than a voice because narrators can be unreliable or reliable. An unreliable narrator is "someone who misrepresents or misinterprets events".( pg.80) A reliable narrator is "someone who accurately describes events." (pg.80) The narrator or the voice can set the tone of the story or the poem. The tone "conveys the speaker's attitude toward his or her subject or audience." (pg.709) For example if the narrator or the voice is serious the play, story, or the poem is serious, but is the narrator or the voice is joyful than the play, story, or the poem is joyful.
Allegory, myth and symbol are some another elements short stories, poetry and drama have in common. "An allegory is a story with two parallel meanings, one is figuratively and the other is literal." An allegories is often used by writers in short stories, poetry and drama to give their writing a deeper meaning and can be use to teach readers or viewers a lesson. A myth is "anonymous story reflecting the religious and social values of the time often involving god and heroes. The Greeks often used myths in their stories and plays they often wrote about their gods and heroes. Myth is often is used in poetry, writers often write poems about god. There are plays that use cosmic irony this is where the gods of fate cause events to happen. A symbol is used in writing to repents something that stands for or suggests something else by relationship, or association. Blood is an example of a symbol used in play, story, or the poem it can symbolize menstruation or death.
Foreshadowing is often used in short stories, poetry and drama. Foreshadowing is used early in a story of situations to hint of things to come. Foreshadowing can be used in poetry in the title to give the reader an idea of what the poem is about. Another element shared by short stories, poetry and drama is mood. The mood is used in short stories, poetry and drama to add atmosphere and to help convey the theme. Mood give a short stories, poetry and drama a feeling, for an example the mood can be eerie or sad.
Figures of speech are another element that is shared by drama, short stories, and poems. Figures of speech are expressions such as a hyperbole or metaphor that uses words to achieve effects beyond ordinary language. Imagery is another element in drama, short stories, and poems. The writer uses imagery is poems and short stories to describe what is seen, heard, smelled. Writer's uses imagery to give readers an impression of charter or situation to help reinforce a theme. Imagery can also be used in plays to describe what cannot be seen or smelled, to help reinforce a theme or idea.
Another element that is common in drama, short stories, and poems is conflict. Conflict is the struggle between opposing forces emerges as the action develops. Conflict can also be internal within oneself poems are often written about being in conflict with one's self. Conflict adds excitement and keeps the readers or audience's attention in drama and short stories. Another element in drama, short stories, and poems is a climax this is where tension or importance reaches its peak. A poem with tension often has a climax where tension reaches its greatest peak just like drama, short stories have a peak.
Although drama, short stories, and poems are very different genres they have many elements in common.
Work citedKirszner, Laurie G., and Stephen R. Mandell, eds. Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing. Compact 6th ed. Boston: ThompsonWadsworth: 2007