When we look through the history, as the ancestors of modern Europe, we see the ancient Greece and Rome. Understanding these two civilisations will lead us to understand Europe better. On the other hand, understanding ancient Greece will also make it easy to understand Rome. To make this statement clear, first we must compare these two ancient civilisations. Then we will be able to have an idea about the structure of both civilisations and descendants of them.
In ancient Greece, we first see the application of direct democracy. It gave it's place to highly improved laws, even foundations of today's laws, in ancient Rome. The main reason in this difference between Greece and Rome is that boundary of Rome was too large to have direct democracy. Greece was founded from small city states. It was easy to gather public in a place and discuss about the ideas in Greece.
Greeks had the ability to speak, discuss, creating laws and even joining courts as a whole city citizens. It was impossible to gather citizens in a public place and discuss about governmental decisions in ancient Rome. Instead of direct democracy, Rome started to be administered with laws that are containing almost everything and depending on the areas they are applied. (ie, law of nations, law of nature)
In both civilisations, we see the free men as the citizens. Slaves were always a part of economy and foundation of these civilisations therefore they are called slave based governments. Women were likely to be luckier than slaves in comparison of Rome and Greece. Of course they didn't have any rights like free men, but they also had ability to eat food with their husbands and even having their own property unlike Greek women. Through the end of these both civilisations, we...