Comparison and Contrast on Theory XY and Z
Douglas McGregor suggested that there are two different ways in which we can look at workers attitudes toward work. Each of these views, which McGregor called Theory X and Theory Y, has implications for management.
Theory X ('authoritarian management' style)
-People do not really like to work and will avoid it if at all possible so they must be coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment to get them to work.
-The average worker avoids responsibility, is unambitious and wants security more than anything else.
-Management based on Theory X is paternalistic at best and, at very least, authoritarian.
-Rewards and punishment are assumed in this theory to be the key to employee productivity.
Theory X managers believe that workers are only motivated by one thing - money. They are selfish, lazy and hate work. They need to be closely controlled and directed.
Theory Y ('participative management' style)
The theory Y is to some extent the opposite image of X
-Effort in work is as natural as rest and play.
-People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, and the external control or the threat of punishment is not the only means of getting them to work.
-Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. The most important reward: satisfaction of their own ego needs.
-People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
-Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.
-In modern industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized.
Theory Y managers believe that Workers are motivated by many different factors apart from money. They enjoy their work and they will happily take on responsibility...