November 14, 2003
Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq became an independent kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being Saddam Hussein. Later on territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive, unending, and costly eight-year war from, (1980-1988). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Iraq continued to have noncompliance with UNSC resolutions during the past 12 years, which resulted in the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003, and the ousting of the Saddam Hussein and his regime. Until this day coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore the war torn infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government.
Iraq has a geography that is typical of a desert region. Iraq is located in the Middle East between Iran and Kuwait. It borders the Persian Gulf, which includes Iran, Syria, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia. Iraq's land make up is slightly twice the size of Idaho. It has a terrain that's mostly made up of broad plains and reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas and mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey. Iraq's main natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and sulfur. Their main natural hazards that take place are the dust storms, sandstorms, and floods.
The climate in Iraq, is mostly desert, with mild to cool winters. They have hot, cloudless summers, with northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders that experience cold...