Name: Shantel Charles
LAB PARTNERS: Leslie Hingle
Extraction is a procedure in organic chemistry that isolates a liquid from an unknown mixture or compound. Isolation of the liquid is based on the densities of the liquids of the compound. Heavier density liquids are found in the aqueous layer or bottom layer. The lower density liquid will be found in the organic layer or top layer. One of the components of the mixture will be soluble in water; the other will stay in the organic solvent. Liquid/liquid extract will be the focus of this experiment.
The solution is swirled in a separatory funnel, draining the bottom layer through the stopcock of the separatory funnel and pouring the top layer from the neck of the funnel separate the layers of two liquids.
There are three types of liquid/liquid extraction: neutral, acidic, and basic.
Using deionized water to remove inorganic molecules from the organic layer performs neutral extraction.
Acidic extractions are used to convert an organic base into its water-soluble form so it can be moved into an aqueous layer.
Basic extractions are used to convert an organic acid into a carboxylic salt so it can be moved into an aqueous layer.
Steps to identify unknown liquids
separate the components of the mixture using separatory funnel
perform recrystallization on unknown liquids
Use % recovery formula to calculate mass of isolated product:
Perform a TLC to calculate the value
Determine the melting point
Other techniques used in this lab
The TLC experiment requires calculation of a retention factor (). The 'Retention Factor' of a compound is a measure of how far it has moved up a plate under certain conditions and it is can be use a quick way of identification. Differences in Retention Factors are important when considering solvent systems...