a) The term Attachment refers to a strong emotional tie that develops over time between an infant and it?s primary caregiver(s) (usually the mother), and results in a desire to maintain proximity.
Deprivation occurs when a child has formed and important attachment, but is then separated from the major attachment figure. It is for a long or short period of time. However, in contrast, Privation occurs when a child has never formed a close relationship with anyone.
b) Hodges and Tizard(1989), investigates the long term effects of privation. They studied 65 English working class children who had been raised in a residential nursery from just after birth until 2 or more years of age.
The aim of their study was to find out the effects of privation on institutionalised children and whether the effects of privation are permanent.
The children being studied were assessed at age 4 ÃÂ½, 8 and 16 and were compared with a similar group of working class children who had been raised at home.
The children at the nursery had well-trained staff who provided high standards of care. The children were given plenty of attention, toys and books and this was reflected in their cognitive development. By 4 ÃÂ½ they had an average score of 105 and their language development was normal for their age. However the children had little opportunity to form close attachment to their caregivers. The nursery also discouraged strong attachment between the staff and the children. Most of the children in the nusery were adopted or restored to their biological families between o the ages of 2 and 7. By age 8 and 16, most of the adopted and some of the restored children had formed close attachments to their parents. This was due to the fact that the adoptive...