A lot has been done since 1950 to combat discrimination against Black people in the U.S. Legislative and judicial action have been taken aimed at racial equality. Integration becomes a widely accepted goal; the civil rights movement grows; attention shifts to affirmative action. However, some political and social factors have hindered change. ?De facto? segregation and social barriers were used to sustain segregation.
I. Work towards racial equality.
A) Legislative actions.
1. 1964 ? Title II of Civil Rights Act forbids discrimination in public accommodations. Title VI provides that federal grants and contracts may be withheld from violators. Title VII forbids discrimination by employers and empowers the Justice Department to sue violators.
2. 24th Amendment ends poll tax in federal election.
3. Voting Rights Act (1965) ? Federal registrars go to South states to protect Blacks? right to vote and gives registrars power to impound ballots in order to enforce the act.
B) Judicial actions.
1. 1954 ? Brown vs. Board of Education holds that segregated schools are inherently unequal and violate the 14th Amendment?s protection clauses.
2. 1979 ? United Steelworkers of America vs. Weber ? permits affirmative action program to favor Blacks if the program is designed to remedy part discrimination.
3. 1995 ? Adarand Constructors vs. Pena ? holds that affirmative action programs must undergo strict searching inquiries to determine that they are narrowly tailored to serve a compelling governmental interest.
II. Social and political factors that hindered the government?s attempts to foster change.
A) ?De facto? (?in reality?) segregation ? when children are assigned to schools near their homes, those homes are in neighborhoods that are racially segregated for social and economic reasons. (Ex. ? District lines in no schools) No cross-district busing ? Miliken vs. Bradley. (1974) B) Blockades to equality.
1. Activists beaten and...