Drugs: any chemical that affects living processes except those needed to maintain normal health *Toxin (even water is toxin especially drugs) Parkinson's disease: neurological disease (brain is not making a chemical named dopamine) Drugs are called psychotropic- drugs that use to alter psychological processes (behavior, emotions, thoughts, and perception).
Psychoactive- used for some other effects but have psychotropic affect Drug Names (most drugs will have three different names) 1. all drugs will have a chemical name, a name that describe the structure, atom the drug has ex).2-chloro-10-(3-dimethylaminopropyphe-nothiazine) 2. generic name- adopted names council ) organization of medical and pharmacist) = coin the drugs to be generic; outside the states have been working together to use similar generic name ex).Chlorpromazine 3. many have three names = brand name trade name proprietary name name by pharmaceutical when they sell them ex). Trade name when market in France = Largactil; in the United States = Torazine Drug Classifications 1.
mechanism of action 2. chemical structure 3. abuse potential 4. use Mechanism of action What a drug is doing molecular level of the body Ex). Monoaminoxidase inhibitors *inhibit amino; its an enzyme;prevent the enzyme from working; anti-depressant drugs (it is old and rarely used) Chemical Structure Relationship b/t the structure and the activity of the body a. structure/activity relationship b. isomers: drugs that have the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms c. optical isomers **Dextrorototory (D) = right rotation **Levorototory(L) = left rotation d. racemic mixture = both D and L in it e. stereospecificity = one of isomer is more active than the other Abuse potentials Federal government uses Schedule of controlled substance a. 5 schedule or categories b. consideration: 1. Addictive potential of drug 2. medical usefulness Use 1. sedative-hypnotics: produces sleep a. alcohol (widely use and legal) addictive compound, physical dependence (dangerous), highly toxic if overdose b. barbituates ("Barbara urinate"ÃÂ) c. chloral hydrate (date rape drink), paraldehyde, Bromides, Quaalue (trade name) (widely used in 19th century (1800) 2. Anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) Sedate and put to sleep a. Benzodiazepine "ÃÂ used to treat anxiety, addictive substance Trade name = Valium Generic name = Diazepam 3. Stimulants Major stimulants a. cocaine b. amphetamines ex). Methylphenidate (generic) Ritalin (trade) Minor stimulants c. Methylxanthines- most widely use worldwide== caffeine d. Nicotine 4. Narcotic (related to opium) a. morphine b. heroine 5. Perceptual Distorters (hallucinogens, distort perception) a. Monamine- related drugs Ex). LSD, ecstasy, MDA (love drug) b. Marijuana: a-motivational syndrome- loss of motivation c. Anticholinergics d. Dissociative Anesthetics "ÃÂ were used for animal tranquilizer (PCD/Phencyclidine "angel dust"ÃÂ) = produce bizarre behavior 6. Neuroleptic (anti-psychotics) - Chlorpromazine 7. Antidepressants - Prozac (trade name) - Fluoxetine (generic name) 8. Antimanics - Lithium