Dual coding

Essay by R FinlaysonCollege, UndergraduateB, November 1996

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How individuals are able to obtain knowledge is something that psychologists have studied for a number of years. The ability to store and retrieve knowledge provides individuals with the propensity to form logical thought, express emotions and internalize the world around them. In order for a psychologist to understand the theories of knowledge it is necessary to investigate the aspects of the theories. In this paper we examine the history , the basic construct, the similarities of the theories and how those theories relate to psychological therapies. History of the theories

The neural network model attempts to explain that which is known about the retention and retrieval of knowledge. Neural network models have been examined for a number of years. In the mid 1940's and 1950's the first of the network models began to appear. These publications introduced the first models of neural networks as computing machines, the basic model of a self-organizing network (Arbib, 1995).

In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts published their model theory ( Arbib, 1995). In 1948 Rashevsky proposed a number of neural network models to explain psychological phenomena. During this era not enough was known about the brain, subsequently he was considered ahead of his time. Rashevsky relied heavily upon complex mathematical equations within his model, consequently many people simply did not understand his theoretical perspective ( Martindale, 1991). In 1958 Rosenblatt proposed his theory on neural network models which focused on perception. The theory elicited a great deal of interest; however it was considered too simple to sufficiently explain all aspects of perception (Arbib, 1995).

As a result of the lack of acceptance, neural network models 'fell out of fashion'(Martindale, 1991, P.12). For a nine year lapse no neural network model theories were developed. In 1967 the network approach was again examined. Konorski developed a...