Edmund Burke, who is often regarded as a spokesman for modern conservatism, believed that human rights were based on tradition and could only be inherited. Burke strongly opposed the French Revolution, which in his view, attempted to break from the traditions of France and destroy their contemporary society. On the other hand, Jean-Jacque Rousseau believed that general will would always be correct and that it would unshackle humans from their chains, allowing them to become free. Burke and Rousseau had similar and contrasting views in terms of human nature, the origin of government, and the relationship between the government and the governed.
Rousseau challenged the present state of society around him by questioning the obsession over material possessions and the morality of a society. He stated that it was impossible for humans living in contemporary conditions to achieve moral and sincere lives due to the corruption of human nature.
In the state of nature, humans were dignified beings, but civilization and increasing knowledge had corrupted these creatures to pursue their own selfish goals. According to Rousseau, society was created to nurture better people. In such a society is more important as a whole than its individual members because these members are merely a part of a larger group.
Burke wouldn't completely agree with such a view on society for he describes society as a contract that is nothing more than a temporary partnership made for profit only to be discarded later when it is no longer needed. However, traces of the partnerships are carried onto the next generation, uniting groups of people for large amounts of time. In this sense, the society in Burke's view is similar in that it holds the same amount of importance that it does in Rousseau's.
Burke's belief is that the creation of government...