History Of Moder Russia
Prof. Marion Wyse
Education in the pre-revolutionary Russia
In this short 5 paragraph essay I will look upon the education in the pre-revolutionary Russia. Through the reform, it is shown that in the beginning of XIX of century, the formation system was erected in Russia. There are designated contradictions between the needs of the developing Russian society for the professional personnel, the prevailing system of initial, secondary and highest education and the social-professional orientation of young people, which aggravated themselves in the beginning of XX century.
School formation in Russia gradually was developed because of the efforts from the side of power of the state and in connection with that the thrust to the education was becoming stronger in the people. Chief characteristics created in that period in Russian schools, clearly expressed; church nature and the aim of the majority of schools for the instruction of the students of elementary literacy (predominance of elementary school).
As far as the normative- lawful base of Russian school X -XVI is concerned, it is characterized by extreme undeveloped quality. Probably, the majority of the schools of that time acted without any documentary formulation: they did not have their own regulations and instructions, the content of formation was determined spontaneously, curricula was absent. The rights and the responsibilities of teacher, students and their parents were clearly determined besides the sources of funds in the school regulations.
As far as general or public education is concerned, the first attempts at its normative regulation undertook emperor Alexander the I. In the period of its reign were published the regulations for the secular educational institutions, and also special Gosudarev the edict, which calls clergy to participate in the matter of public education. The reforms of the spiritual formation, which entailed centralization and ordering of formation system as a whole, were also carried out in that period. Therefore, the project of rules about the formation of spiritual schools were finally determined in four steps of the educational institutions: academy, seminary, county school, parochial school. To the middle XIX the legal status of spiritual schools and seminaries was determined by the standard regulations, developed by training committee.
Most likely, by encouraging the pedagogical activity of priests in schools, the state was more worried about the moral training, than about the general formation of people.
In conclusion, people's spiritual attitude to schools supported the well-known representatives of domestic pedagogy. Therefore, D.Ushinskiy wrote that "the matter of people training must be blessed by church, and school must be the threshold of church" The pedagogical education in our country has a long and difficult history, it has past through many different stages and it seems that the needs in Russian society for the professional personnel, the prevailing system of initial, secondary and highest education and the social-professional orientation has been accomplished.
Sources: http://www.zarplata.ru/a-id-13664.html. Book: Russian History by Zaichki. I.A and Pochkaev. I.N published in 1992.