INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF ENZYME ACTIVITY.
To investigate the effect that temperature has on enzyme activity I am going to use the enzyme amylase, which is used as a biological catalyst to break down starch, which cannot pass through the gut wall due to the size of the molecules, into smaller ones. Amylase is a carbohydrase, which converts starch to simple sugars in the Salivary Glands. Three features of all enzymes are:
They are always proteins.
They are specific in their actions and each enzyme controls one particular type of action.
The enzymes are not changed in the reaction which they take part in, therefore they can be used over and over again.
Enzymes work by constantly moving around and colliding with substrates. There is one particular substrate for each enzyme. When it collides with the correct one, the substrate fits the depression, which is otherwise known, as the "active site."
The reaction then takes place and the products of reaction leave the active site. The whole process is repeated.
I predict that the enzymes will work at there fastest at around 37C. Both extracellular enzymes and intracellular enzymes are designed to work at body temperature, as they are biological catalysts and they are designed to speed up chemical reactions that take place in our body, inside and outside cells. This is the right temperature for the random movement of molecules, so that they collide as often as possible, without being destroyed. Without enzymes the reactions would be slow and we would not be able to live.
At 0C the enzymes will work slowly to break down the starch. At a lower temperature the enzymes will have little energy and this would make the constant movement extremely slow and therefore the substrate molecule, in this...