- Outstanding. You sit above the rest of the class
The Effects on Children
When Both Parents are Employed
Socio-economic conditions in North America have contributed to the need for dual incomes for families. Economically, "the number of two parent families below the poverty line would increase to an estimated 78% if they were to become single income families." (Ontario Women's Directorate 9) Socially, it was the norm, in the past, for women to stay at home having a more expressive role in the family; taking care of the children and providing emotional support for the family. Presently, women feel that their traditional roles as child bearers and homemakers must be supplemented with a sense of achievement outside the home. Recent studies reflect an increased trend towards the dual income family and projections are for this trend to continue. In 1961, 30% of married women were working; in 1978, 38% were employed; by 1981 50% were working and in 1985, 55% held paying positions outside the home.
(Jarman and Howlett 95) In 1961, only 20% of all two parent families were dual wage families, but by 1986, more than half (53%) of all families were dual earning families. (Ramu 26)
In light of the fact that the majority of two parent families in the 1990's have also become dual wage earning families, it is important to examine the effects of such a phenomenon on society in general and on child rearing in particular. Children acquire their goals, values and norms based on the way that they view or identify with their parents as well as from the quality and amount of care, love and guidance given to them by their parents. Parents who work present a different image to their children than parents who do not work. In addition,