Electric cars are meant to be economically and environmentally better for road way passage. Electric cars create less pollution then gasoline powered cars making them more environmentally friendly. Although electric cars in shape are not much different then gasoline powered cars there are a lot more changes under the hood. The gasoline powered engine is replaced by an electric motor and then the electric motor is then powered by a controller the controller then receives it power from a collection of rechargable batteries.
The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The accelerator is hooked up to a pair of potentiometers which are resistors allowing the controller to determine how much power is really needed, like a gasoline powered car the controller can deliver no power when the car is stopped and full power when the accelerator is floored and anywhere in between. As to how the controller works it has two large transistors that rapidly turns the batteries voltage on and off to create a sine wave.
You would then push the accelerator and power is then transferred to your potentiometers. One major difference between the electric car and the gasoline powered car is that the electric car is virtually silent. The pulsed current causes the motor to vibrate at the frequency of 15,000 pulses.
Electric cars use either AC or DC motors. AC motors are generally more powerful running at 240 volts and having a 300 volt battery pack whereas the DC motor runs from anywhere between 96 to 192 volts. DC installations tend to be easier and less expensive the typical motor will run anywhere from a 20,000-30,000 watt range and the controller will be anywhere from 40,000-60,000 watts. Something distinct about the DC motor is that you can overdrive them...