In this paper the ideas and features of stategic human resouces development are contrasted with the concept of employee-driven HRD. Three sequential studies are presented, all conducted in pension funds in the Netherlands: (1) a development study on a management-driven HRD programme; (2) replication study in five organisations; (3) a development study on an employee-driven HRD programme. Data were collected using a variety of methods and instruments. Results show that besides a positive organisational climate, none of the elements in the conceptual framework of management driven training and learning could be found. The implementation of these principles was possible, but only with strong efforts, because of continuous work pressures conflicting with (off site) training activities. In employee-driven training and learning the trainer facilitates employees to integrate working and learning to the maximum. This resulted in increased innovation, increased performance of the team and increased motivation and satisfaction of the participating members.
There is little doubt that training and development are of great importance for companies, institutions and government agencies. The current assumption is that training and development should support the strategy of the organisation and that the learning outcomes ultimately contribute to the financial results, societal relevance, customer and employee satisfaction. The main characteristic of strategic human resource development, and specific the formal training and learning, is that the various activities are driven by management. Management- driven training and learning is based on the assumption that there is a close relationship between the strategic policy, personnel policy and the training policy (Rothwell & Kazanas, 1989). The training activities are perceived as part of the management instruments, by means of which performance of employees and ultimately of departments, units and entire organisations can be steered and controlled. The Human Performance Technology approaches as described by Stolovitch and...