EMPLOY OF UNUSED AGRICULTURAL RAW MATERIALS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION: SUBSTITUTION OF FOSSIL FUELS BY BIO-FUELS PRODUCED OF JATROPHA CURCAS (PINE NUT) OIL FOR POWER GENERATION IN GALÃÂPAGOS ISLANDS-ECUADOR
Diana Barros matrikel #: 03648987
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Galapagos Islands are located 1000 Km off the west coast of Ecuador. It includes 13 big islands (up to 10 Km2 surface), 5 small islands (between 1 to 10 Km2) and 107 rocks and islets. Together they form the Ecuadorian province of Galapagos and the National Park under the same name.
For its political and economical management; the province is divided in 3 municipalities: Santa Cruz, San CristÃÂ³bal and Isabela which enclosed the 5 inhabited islands (Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, Santa Cruz and San Cristobal).
Galapagos Islands have a worldwide significance due to its great number of unique and endemic species and they are recognized as a world biosphere reserve by UNESCO.
Regarding the power generation needed in the inhabited islands, the demand is currently increasing due to the population growth and the raise of tourists visiting the islands.
The electrical system in Galapagos shows a very low energetic performance due to their old age and technology.
Electrical power of the 5 inhabited islands is generated by the burning of fossil fuels (diesel), which are transported to the island from the continent.
According to ERGAL (Renewable Energy Program for Galapagos), in 2001 1.684.000 diesel gallons were burned for power generation on the islands which result in the emission of 19.200 CO2 tons.
Besides the CO2 emissions produced during the fuel combustion, the dangers of fuel's spills in the sea due to its transportation are a permanent threat. A clear example is the diesel spill occurred in 2001 which is estimated to spill 145.000 diesel gallons.
To prevent this situation to happen again and to reduce...