MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
The triangle below is Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory. He believes that all people are motivated by the same things. The three lower things in the pyramid have to be achieved before the two higher needs are met.
Self-actualization: people want to feel they are achieving something. Managers should set personal targers for workers.
Self-esteem: People want to feel valued by others. Managers should praise and encourage employees. They should give them rewards like financial benefits.
Belonging: People should be able to enjoy the company of others. Managers should encourage team work and social contacts.
Safety: People want to feel safe and secure from harm. Managers should give workers job security.
Physical Survival: People need food, water, shelter, clothing and warmth. These should be met by the basic wage.
HERZBERG'S HYGINE FACTORS
Herzberg believes that all needs of workers can be put into two groups:
Hygine Factors: Things that business's need to provide workers with to keep them contented.
Such as clean, quiet, and safe working conditions. With lunch breaks.
Motivating Factors: Things that will encourage workers to do their best. Like praise from people, promotions and being given more responsibility.
Herzberg believes that if the hygiene factors are poor in a business then the motivating factors will not work. For example, if the manager of a company gives praise to an employee in a room with broken light fittings and graphite on the walls then the praise will not work.
MCGREGOR'S THEORY X AND THEORY Y
McGregor believes that there are two types of manager. They motivate their workers in different ways.
Theory X managers believe that workers are only motivated by money. They are lazy, selfish and dislike work. They lack ambition. The workers need to be controlled and coerced by managers.