Germany between 1918 and 1933
Novemberrevolution and armistice
It all startet with the revolution in November 1918. As preliminary remark, a revolution is defined as a "fundamental change in political organization; especially : the overthrow or renunciation of one government or ruler and the substitution of another by the governed" (Mirriam-Webster ). So, what effects did the particular revolution of November 1918 have, and how did it change Germany?
The impulse for this revolution were mutinying sailors of the German navy who refused to execute an order that appeared to be senseless and life-threatening (29 October). On 4 November 1918, the German regimen offered Wilson armistice as a result of the revolution. Basis for this offer were Wilson's so-called Fourteen Points that he presented to Congress in January 1918 as an outline for a moderate peace in Europe. He wrote it "[t]o make world save for democracy," as he said (Schlapp).
The Points asked for economic and political equality of all nations, reorganization of Europe along lines of nationality, and limitation of armor in all countries. Moreover, Germany had to give up Alsace-Lorraine and they had to pay reparations.
The emperor Wilhelm II resigned on November 9. One day later, the Rat der Volksbeauftragten took over all government expenditures. This institution which in English means Council of People's Representatives is defined as the "German provisional revolutionary government established on 10 November 1918, with the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) and UnabhÃÂ¤ngige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD) each providing three members with Friedrich Ebert and Hugo Haase as joint chairmen"(International Institute of Social History Archives). Eventually, the armistice took place on 11 November 1918.
Treaty of Versailles
In January 1919 the peace negotiations started: the victorious nations met in Paris to decide for a settlement. Germany only received a draft agreement in May...