The book, Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, is based upon his view of humans and human nature. He makes a very convincing argument about human nature. He says that basically all humans have the capacity for good and evil, and human instincts are no different from those of animals. What William Golding is saying about human nature is that at its root it is savage, there are no morals, no right or wrong, only what one needs to do to survive.
First, looking at the setting for the book, one can see that it has its non-civilized qualities. It is an island. There is neither order nor rules. This set the stage for the boys to become the savages they do. Without the rules and order of society what will young, unlearned boys do? They will lose what little knowledge of society they had at their age.
This is very, very evident at the end of the book. By the end of the book, Jack and his followers have become complete savages; they have no care about taking someone's life. They have become desensitized to death and pain. It becomes just another part of their daily routine, as brushing your teeth or cleaning yourself; it becomes something they have to do.
One of Golding's main themes through the book is the fight between good and evil. Good being Ralph, Evil being Jack. The two of these boys have conflict from the very beginning of the book when Jack is not elected leader. Right then Jack and Ralph are shown as the opposites of one another. Ralph and Jack are the very base of human nature and morality. They can be looked at as the metaphorical 'devil and angel' who sit upon one's shoulders. Ralph always trying...