Mesopotamia is an ancient civilization located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It has a hot, dry, climate. Mesopotamia was started in 5,300 B.C. and ended 2,900 B.C. There are 5 features to every civilization, they are: stable food supply, specialization of labor, system of government, social levels, and a highly developed culture. There are 8 features under culture they are: art, architecture, writing, literature, music, religion, technology, and leisure and recreation. The three most important are stable food supply, writing, and a system of government.
Out of the three a stable food supply is the most important. A stable food supply is the most important because in order to keep a civilization they need to have a surplus of food in case of a bad famine. In case of a drought they have an irrigation system. It is made out of canals, gates, and artificial lakes. They grew barley, wheat, vegetables, and grapefruits.
A stable food supply satisfied the needs of the people because not everyone had to be a farmer. Since not everyone had to be a farmer some people traded. In order to remember what they had sold they wrote tallies. Tallies started writing.
The first kind of writing was cuneiform. Cuneiform was symbols. Pictographs came after cuneiform and they were pictures. Letters were made because they couldn't describe everything. Some of the letters we use today. Writing satisfied the needs of the people by you could write letters to people without talking to them. With writing you could write laws and rules. Writing laws and rules started a system of government.
The first people that rules were priest. They ruled the temples. After getting in a lot of wars the people decided they needed short military leaders. They decided that they needed long time leaders.