1.) Catal Huyuk is deemed the first city in western civilization. Standing where modern day Turkey is, Catal Huyuk was built between 6700 BC and 5700 BC during the Neolithic period. During this time, which means "new stone age," the nomadic way of life was left behind. An agricultural revolution took place and for the first time humans settled down, and learned to farm and domesticate livestock. There was an organized division of labor, and tools of stone and bone were used. The beginning of pictographic writing was also significant because it was used for trading and buying goods.
2.) The Parthenon is an exquisite temple and treasury built in 447 BC in honor of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and warfare. It is located in Athens, Greece and named for the greek word, parthenos, which means virgin. Its significance and glory is in its architecture. The building is a perfect Doric temple.
Pericles initiated the building of the temple as a replacement for buildings destroyed during the Persian wars. It was designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates with general supervision under the sculptor Phidius. It is the most outstanding building of Ancient Greece.
3.) The Epic of Gilgamesh is said to be the oldest epic in western literature. According to "Readings in the Western Humanities", Gilgamesh was King of Uruk, a Sumerian city-state in Mesopotamia around 2700 BC. Gilgamesh deals with the death of his friend, Enkidu, who died for killing the Bull of Heaven. He sets out to find Utnapishtum to ask of him, "how shall I find the life for which I am searching?" Utnapishtum tells Gilgamesh that nothing is permanent. He also tells him "The Story of the flood" which is similar to the biblical story of Noah's Ark. The story was meant to...