During the age of religious wars, leading to the Renaissance, warfare drastically
changed. Strategies, weapons; the whole art itself was reshaped by the contact
with other peoples and the strive to attain more power. Before this time, fighting
was restricted to all the Medieval straitjacket would allow. 'Wars' consisted mostly
of the small forces of feudal nobles in their squeamish attempts to obtain more land.
Once the Crusades occurred, everything changed. Alliances were formed and broken, new
weapons unveiled, huge strategies deduced, and suddenly people weren't just trying to
defend the small plot of land they called 'home', but their entire nation. If there
is a fulcrum in warfare, it was the period of religious wars and the Renaissance.
It should be noted that alliances are very much related to the art of war. They
were (are) as omnipresent as war itself. They have been both the cause of war and
the key to the victory.
There is a direct correlation between warfare and alliances.
Throughout this time, alliances were forming (and breaking) between European countries
to either conquer one another, or simply keep each other in check. A very well-suited
example would be the famous Third Crusade. Richard the Lionhearted of England, Frederick
Barbrosa of the divided Germany, and Phillip Augustus of France, some of the most
powerful rulers of Europe (some, bitter enemies), united for religious reasons to
fight a holy war against the 'infidel' ruler, Saladin (Wallbank, T. Walter...et al 263).
The three rulers united and traveled to Jerusalem to fight. Frederick died on the way and
Richard and Phillip Augustus were left in charge(Wallbank, T. Walter...et al 263).
England and France have a history of unfriendliness to each other (Wallbank, T.
Walter...et al 302-303), and that was once more displayed when Phillip Augustus
departed after a...